Photosynthetic organisms, from cyanobacteria to vascular plants, evolved to function under suboptimal environmental conditions. Operating under these conditions requires capabilities that are often overlooked in optimal laboratory environments. The benefit of studies under optimal conditions has been immense as they have provided us with a detailed view of the structure, the function and the dynamics of the photosynthetic apparatus. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the dynamic range and the complexity of the mechanisms operating under suboptimal conditions is still in its infancy, even in well characterized “model” organisms. The goal of our research is to provide a mechanistic level of understanding for the processes that enables the photosynthetic apparatus to cope with the demands of natural environments.